Category Archives: Punctuation

The Phonemic Alphabet

The phonemic alphabet is the symbols used to represent the sounds of the English language. You see them in a dictionary, usually written in italics and between two slashes. Here is a very nice pictorial depiction from English File that will hopefully … Continue reading

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e.g. / i.e. : what’s the difference?

The Latin abbreviations e.g. and i.e. are commonly used in English, and nearly as commonly mixed up. Below is a clear explanation, which can also be found online at it’s original home: I should also point out that these days you can write both … Continue reading

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Hyphen and dash: what’s the difference?

I’ve been asked a few times now what the difference is between a hyphen and a dash. So here’s the answer, perfectly answered at : Just to add that my own preference is to include a single space before and … Continue reading

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Independent and Dependent Clauses

This is just about the most basic concept in language. Note that every known language in the world has the ability to construct independent and dependent clauses. Knowing this fact makes your life easier when you come to learn a … Continue reading

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If you want to write well in English it is essential to learn how to use commas correctly. This will make a big difference in how your ideas flow and will certainly impress an examiner, who is, after all, only … Continue reading

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